The Ph.D. programme in Economics of the Tuscan Universities is jointly offered by the Universities of Florence, Pisa and Siena. The programme takes three years of full-time study and aims at training students for a career as economists in research institutions.

The distinctive feature of the Ph.D. programme is its pluralistic approach. Emphasis is given to the historical dimension of economic phenomena and to seek interaction with other disciplines, such as law, biology, neurosciences and psychology. This multidisciplinary perspective stands out as unique in Italian postgraduate education, allowing students to acquire the breadth of views necessary to deal with today's most pressing issues and make significant contributions in the complex fields of economics and social sciences.